The National Council of Women of Canada (NCWC)
was founded in 1893, in a period when women were beginning to organize
themselves for effective community action. Many women, looking beyond
the charitable societies, garden clubs, music and literary clubs,
and missionary societies to which they belonged, saw the need for
societal reform, better education for women, even women's suffrage.
They realized that they would be much more effective if they spoke
with a united voice.
The International Council of Women (ICW) had been founded a few
years earlier, in 1888, at a meeting in Washington, D.C. The idea
of a Canadian Council was developed at the ICW World's Congress
of Representative Women, meeting in Chicago in May 1893. A group
of women attending from the Dominion of Canada took the opportunity
to form a provisional executive for the possibility of a new Canadian
The National Council of Women of Canada came into existence formally
on October 27, 1893, at a public meeting held in the Horticultural
Pavilion in Toronto and attended by 1,500 women.
View the plaque installed in Allan Gardens in 2005 by the Government of Canada
Lady Ishbel Aberdeen,
the wife of the Governor General, agreed to become the first president,
and the rapid spread of local Councils across Canada owed much to
her energy and enthusiasm. Lady
Aberdeen was never for a moment a figurehead president, and
when she left Canada in 1898, her executive lamented… We feel
that in losing your stimulating and energizing presence we are losing
that which has hitherto been the mainspring of our organization.
From its beginning, the National Council worked to improve the status
of women. Some of its earliest efforts were directed towards improving
the lot of three underprivileged groups/women prisoners, women working
in factories, and women immigrants. By 1900, its members were reporting
the appointment of matrons in some institutions housing women prisoners,
and of women inspectors in Ontario and Quebec factories where women
One of the founding members of the National Council, Dr. Augusta
Stowe-Gullen, was the first woman to obtain a medical degree in
Canada, and was a leader of the women's suffrage movement. At first
some Council members were less than enthusiastic about the need
for universal suffrage, but, in the end, the National Council pressed
for women's suffrage in representations to provincial legislatures
and the federal parliament. In 1918, the passing at the federal
level of the Act to Confer the Electoral Franchise Upon Women rewarded
A major thrust through the years has been the appointment of women
magistrates and women to boards, delegations, and commissions. In
1897, minutes from a local Council record an early success/the first
women trustees appointed to the school board in New Westminster,
B.C. Throughout the twentieth century, many letters, briefs and
telegrams have gone to the government asking for the appointment
of women to boards, tribunals and international delegations. The
government has responded, if slowly. In the 1930s, NCWC President
Winnifred Kydd and Nellie McClung were members of Canadian delegations
to the League of Nations. In 1930, Cairine Wilson, an active member
of the Ottawa Council of Women, became the first woman to be appointed
to the Senate.
In 1929, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United
Kingdom, then the highest court of appeal for Canadians, brought
down its landmark decision-declaring women to be persons. Of the
five women who brought the case through the courts, three were actively
involved in the National Council of Women.
The Council has always been concerned with the welfare of children,
the family, and the community. In the 1890s, members were working
to establish the first free libraries and supervised playgrounds
for children in cities across the land, as well as the teaching
of domestic science and manual training in the schools. They also
pushed for many public health measures, including a pure water supply,
the pasteurization of milk, and medical inspection in schools. The
situation of the native people of Canada, the treatment of prisoners,
and the condition of immigrants has been the subjects of many resolutions.
Child welfare has also been a major focus, including the prevention
of child abuse, the education of children, and the need for good
Due to the wide-ranging interaction of its federated organizations,
NCWC has been a leader in bringing developing issues to the government.
For example, the call for equal pay for work of equal value was
first made at the annual meeting of 1907. In the thirties, the Council
was involved with the study and prevention of the spread of venereal
diseases. In the forties, it was again recommending equal pay for
work of equal value, as well as opening training programs to women
and a health insurance plan. In the fifties, it wanted pension plans
adapted to benefit female employees, and promoted standards for
clothing and the fluoridation of water supplies.
The National Council of Women has not avoided controversial issues.
In 1961, it recommended broadening the grounds for divorce. In 1964,
it asked for the dissemination of birth control information and
in 1971, it passed a resolution asking for the removal of abortion
from the Criminal Code. In the 1970s, it also asked for programs
to protect prostitutes and to assist in their rehabilitation.
Concern about the environment has also been a constant preoccupation.
The National Council began campaigning for more parkland in 1912;
its most recent resolution on the subject was in 1992. It has passed
many resolutions about air and water pollution, and for better water
management; its first resolution on the subject of acid rain was
in 1978. In 1993 the National Council was granted an official Coat
Over the years, as the Council's relationship with government
became more formal, the practice developed of presenting an annual
brief to the Prime Minister and members of the Cabinet. Currently,
in addition to this annual brief, the National Council presents
briefs to parliamentary committees and royal commissions and from
time to time may be represented on special advisory committees.
The strength of its work comes from a broadly based network of
organizations affiliated with local or provincial councils or with
the National Council. It is their representatives who research and
debate proposals for change and develop the resolutions, which the
National Council presents to government. When these resolutions
are approved at the national level, they represent the consensus
of many thousands of women.
Today the National Council of Women of Canada continues to be concerned
with a wide range of issues involving women, the family, the community,
and the state. It has inevitably been affected by recent trends
in Canadian society such as the increased movement of women into
the workforce, the growing importance of the media, the technology
of instant communication, and the development of single-interest
advocacy groups. Its role in the next few decades will be affected
by its ability to respond and adapt to these changes while retaining
the strength, which comes from local grass roots participation.